Library Publication

How to Cite a Reference? [alternatively you can use EndNote or MS Word 2007 to make citations]

1      Books 2      Periodicals/Serials 3      Newspapers
4      Book Reviews 5      Reference Works 6      Quotations
7      Bibliography forms in Harvard
        and Numeric System
8      Special Publications 9      Reports
10    Conference Proceedings 11    Theses/Dissertations 12    Interviews
13    Personal Communications 14   Unpublished Duplicated
15    International Bodies
16    Manuscript Collections 17    Non-print Materials 18     Material obtained through
19     Material from Computer
          Programs and Electronics
20    Public Documents 21     Webliography

 1                                Books

 Use the title page of the book to find most of the information.


In a bibliography entry, the name of the author appears with the last name first for purposes of alphabetization. When there are two or three authors, the names are listed in the order in which they appear on the title page, whether or not that order is alphabetical. Only the name of the first author appears in inverted order. A comma separates the first name of the first author from succeeding names.

 One author

Put the surname first, followed by initial (s) of forenames (s)

            e.g. Blackfoot, Emery

 Two authors

If there are two contributing names, include both

            e.g. Simonds, Wendy, and Barbara Katz Rothman.

 Three authors

In the case of three authors, the names are listed in the order shown on the title page:

            e.g.Merk, Janes S.,Ida J. Fogg, and Charles A. Snowe

 More than three authors

 In the bibliography entry, the usual practice is to list all the authors. The name of the first author is inverted. It is also acceptable, if the author wishes, to list only the first author, followed by �et al.� �and others.�

Charlotte, Marcuset al., Investigation into the Phenomenon of Limited-Field                              Criticism Boston: Broadview Press, 1990


If the book is edited, signify this using ed.

            e.g. Eliot, T.S.,ed.

 Compiler and Translator

Use comp. for compiler and trans. for translator.e.g.

Gianakakos, Peter, and William Poweska, trans. Studies of Transformation in Eastern Europe.Buffalo: N.Y.: Touser and Blinken, 1999.

 Anonymous works

When no author�s name appears on a work or when the title page lists anonymous as the author, the work is listed in the bibliography by title alone. If the author�s name is known, it may be put in brackets and the work may be listed in the bibliography under the author�s name. Anonymous is not used as an author entry.

            [Scarborough, Dorothy]. The Wind. New York: Harper, 1925.


            The Wind. New York: Harper, 1925


When an author�s name as given on the title page is a pseudonym (pen name), the bibliography entry begins with the pseudonym and continues with the author�s real name in brackets. If the author�s real name is unknown, the abbreviation pseud, within brackets follows the name.

            Green, Hannah [Joanne Greenberg]. I never promised you a Rose Garden.

                        New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.


Use the title given on the title page

Omit lengthy sub-titles

Italic the title

            e.g.       Information UK 2000

Since punctuation is often omitted from title pages, it may be necessary to add this to citations in notes or bibliographies. Series commas, commas setting off dates, and colons between title and subtitle are frequently omitted at the ends of lines on title pages and must therefore be added.


Give information in the bibliography concerning the edition. Only include the edition number if it is not the first

            e.g. 3rd ed.

A new edition may be called �Revised Edition� (no number), �Second Edition, Revised and England� or some other variant. In bibliography entries or notes these are commonly abbreviated: rev.ed.; 2nd ed., rev. and encl. (or just 2nd ed.) and soon. Such terms should be given in English even through the book is in a foreign language.

Abdul Waheed Concise Numerical Examples in Statistics.

2nd ed. Lahore: Naveed Publications, 1990.

Samreen Lateef. Information System rev. ed. Lahore:

Ferozsons, 2003

Number of volumes

Only include the number of volumes if more than one

                        e.g. 2 vols.

If referring to a specific volume number, put the volume number

                        e.g. Vol.3


If quoting a specific section include the page (s) where the quotation is found use the abbreviation p. before the page number(s) to avoid any confusion



Series titles are included for illustrative purposes in all of the following examples, but if the works can be located without them, or if they are given in bibliography listings, series titles may be omitted from notes to save space.

Wolf, Theta Holmes. The Effects of Praise and Competition on the Persisting

Behavior of Kindergarten Children. Child Welfare Monograph Series,

no.15.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1938.

 Place, Publisher and year of Publication

These three pieces of information are usually formed on the back of the title page. Put the place of publication first then publisher followed by the date of publication.

            e.g. Lahore: Multiline Books, 2002

 Missing information

When you cannot locate one or more pieces of information concerning publication, you should use one of the following abbreviations in the appropriate place in the entry:

            No Place: n.p.

            No publisher: n.p.

            No date: n.d.

No page: n.pag. Or unpaginated

Capitalize the abbreviations only when it begins a section of the entry.

Eliot, George. Felix Holt. Edinburgh: William Blackwood,


Eliot, George. Felix Holt. n.p.: William Blackwood, n.d.

 Classical works

Refer to classical works by title and main divisions � volume, book chapter, pages sections, or lines, as appropriate�in subsequent references. Numerals should be separated by periods without spacing. The initial citation must name the translator and editor. This is important information about any work, but it is essential for classical works, where the translator�s task can involve restoring the text or applying new theories about the meaning of particular words.

            Aristotle.Poetics.Trans.S.H.Butcher and ed. Francis. Ferguson.

                  New York: Hill and .

Plato.TheRepublic.Trans.Desmond.Lee.Harmondsworth: Penguin,1955.

 2                                Periodicals/SeRIALS


 Any publication that comes out at regular interval is a periodical. Periodicals  from an academic or professional audience are called journals; periodicals intended for the general publics are often called magazines.

This information can usually be found at the front of the journal, annual or other type of serial publications.



Use the title given at the front of the serial, italic the title.

            e.g. British Library News

Do not use abbreviation in the title unless the serials is known by its abbreviation

            e.g. BMJ for British Medical Journal

 Volume numbers

Record the volume numbers for the complete run of a serial .

            e.g. 1 � 5

If volume numbers are not given, use the issue numbers

If volume or issue numbers are not given, use year of publication

If certain years have been consulted from the run of a serial, this should be recorded


Years of publications

Put the years of publication for the complete run of serial

            e.g.       1964-1988

Use a hyphen to indicate a serial which is still being published

            e.g. 1982-


Frequency of publication

If a serial is still being published, put the frequency of publication

e.g. Annual.

 3-         NEWSPAPERS



The bibliography entry for a newspaper should include the name of the author (if available), the title of the article (headline) in quotation marks, and the name of the newspaper underlined.

 Rasky, Susan F. �Senate Calls for Revisions in New Tax for

Health Care.� ,DAWN, Lahore. 8 June 1989, A20

 Norman, Michael. �The Once-simple Folk tale Analyzed by

Acadene.� New York Times, 5 March 1984, 15(N)


4-         BOOK REVIEWS


 An entry for a book review begins with the name of the reviewer, includes the title (if any) of the review, gives the name of the author and the work being reviewed, and ends with the name of the periodical in which the review, and ends with the name of the periodical in which the review appeared, together with the volume number (if applicable), date, and page(s). If the review is unsigned and untitled, the entry begins with Review or Rev. Examples of three types of review entries follow.

Moore, Walter. �Great Physicist, Great Guy.� Review of Genuius: The Life and

Science of Richard Feynman, by James Gleick. New York Times. Book

Review, 11 Oct. 1992, 3.


            Lott, Robert E. Review of Emilia Pardo Bazan, by Walter T.

                 Pattison. Symposium 28 (1974): 382.


            Review of Married to Genius, by Jeffrey Meyers. Journal of

                 Modern Literature 7 (1979): 579-80.



Entries for widely known reference works, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, and yearbooks, need not include the facts of publication. The edition number or the year suffices for identification of the work. The article or entry appears within quotation marks, and the title of the reference work is italic.

Encyclopedia entry     Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. �Original package.�

Dictionary entry          Webster�s New International Dictionary, 3d ed., s.v. �epistrophe.�

Atlas entry      Times Atlas of the World. 1990 ed.s.v. �World Climatology.�

Signed entry   When an article or entry is signed, the name of the author may be included.

Holman, Harriet R..�Page, Thomas Nelson.� Collier�s Encyclopedia.1987ed.

Specialized reference works  Entries for little known & specialized reference works should include the full facts of publications.

            Ealwell, JohnMurray Millgate and Peter Newman. The New Palgrave:

A Dictionary of Economics.London:Macmillan,1987

6-         QUOTATIONS


A list of published sources used for essays, projects and other work must always should be included. These lists are normally placed at the end of a piece of work, for example, a list of references and a bibliography. Do not use footnotes.

Setting out quotations

Quotations if short, up to three lines, can be set in quotation marks and included in the body of the text:

e.g. Castens (1988) has reaffirmed that�polytechnics have some way to go in

developing adequate and communicable descriptions of our stock and its use�.

Longer quotations should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text. Quotations marks are not required.

e.g.  Jones (1990) has observed that:

In a short period of time, Paradox has established itself as the number two player among database managers for IBM-compatible PCs. Considering the intense competition in the software industry, that says a lot about the nature of Paradox.

Ease of use is an important factor for buyers when choosing a DBMS.

If part of the quotation is omitted, this is indicated using three dots:

e.g. The tradition publishing industry� is keeping a close which on the development of desktop publishing.

7-         Bibliography forms in Harvard and Numeric System



There are two main methods by which references can be displayed, the

Harvard system and the British standard (numeric) system. Once a method has been selected it is important to apply it consistently.

Harvard System


Eason, K. (1998) Information technology and organizational change, New York: Taylor & Francis.


Journals articles

Smith, G. (1992) Newspapers on CD_ROM, Serials, 5(3), p.17-22

Note: only the year is given, chronological designations of parts of serials (Spring, October, etc.) are omitted.


Section in a book edited by another

Gibb, F. (1987) Why we needs more WIMPs in the office. In HILLS. S.ed. Information handling techniques for the office: full text rules OA? New York: Tayler Graham. P.67-77.

British Standard (Numeric) System



Eason, K. Information technology and organisational change. London: Taylor & Francis, 1988.


Journal article

Smith, G. Newspapers on CD_Rom. Serials 5(3) November 1992, p.17-22.


Section in a book edited by another

Gibb, F. Why we need more WIMPs in the office. In HILLS, S. ed. Information handling techniques for the office: full text rules OA? New York: Taylor Grahm, 1987. p.67-77

Quoting references in the text Harvard System

Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author/s surname and the year of publication. One of two forms may be used:-

            In a recent study Eason (1998) at argued that�..

            In a recent study (Eason 1988) it was argued that�

When the same author has published more than one cited document in the same year, these are distinguished by adding lower-case letters (a, b, c etc.) after the year and within the parentheses:

            However, Rayner (1975a) proposed that�.

For publications by two authors, both are given:

In their first work, Westalke and Carke (1987)�

For publications by two or more authors, the surname of the first author is given, followed by et al:

The more recent study by Farmer et al (1988)

Anonymous works may be shown by Anon. in place of the author/s surname:

In a recent study (Anon. 1991) it was argued that�

To acknowledge direct quotations or to refer to individual pages of particular book or article the page number(s) should be given after the date, separated from it by a comma, and within the parentheses:

(Eason 1988, p.49)

Punctuation practice should be consistent.

British Standard (Numeric) System (BS 1629:1989)

Cited publications are numbered in the order in which they are first referred to in the text. They are identified by a number given in round brackets, in square brackets or as a superscript numeral: are identified by a number given in round brackets, in square brackets or as a superscript numeral:

            In a recent study, Eason (5) argued that�

            In a recent study, Eason (5) argued that�

            In a recent study, Eason (5) argued that�

Listing reference at the end of the text

Harvard System

Entries are listed in alphabetical order by author�s name and then by date. This list may include sources not specifically referred to in the text thus removing the need for a separate list of sources or bibliography.


Carson, J.(1988) Desktop publishing and libraries.

New York: Taylor Graham.

Meadows, A.J. and Buckle, P. (1992) Changing communication activities in the

British scientific community. Journal of documentation, 48 (3), p.276-290

Rowley, Jennifer. (1998) Abstracting and indexing, 2nd ed. London: Bingley.

Rowley, Jennifer. (1990) The basics of systems analysis and design for

information managers. London: Bingley.

British Standard System

Entries are listed in a alphabetical order by author�s name and then by date. This list may include sources not specifically referred to in the text thus removing the need for a separate list of sources or bibliography.


Rowley, Jennifer. The basics of system analysis and design for information managers.

London: Bingley, 1990.

Carson, J. Desktop publishing and libraries, New York: Taylor Graham, 1998.

Rowley, J. Abstracting and indexing, 2nd ed. London: Bingley, 1998.

Meadows, A.J. and Bucle, P.Changing communication activities in the British Scientific

community. Journal of documentation., 48(3), September 1992, p.276-290.

If a source is cited more than once, the abbreviations ibid. op. cit. and loc. cit. are used in subsequent citations. See the Appendix for examples showing how these are used.

8-         Special publications


 There are other types of material that required individual treatment.

 Official publications

Citation elements:

 Author (Usually the name of Ministry, Department, agency, council, committee or other official body).

In order to avoid confusion, it is recommended that official publications are qualified by country:

            e.g. Pakistan. Ministry of Education..

 Title of the work         (Italic)

 Edition number, publisher and year of publication (list number of volumes if more than one)

 Title of series and volume number in such series


Great Britain, Office of Arts and Libraries. (1998) Financing our public library

service: four subject for debate: a consultative paper. H.M.S.O. (cm 324).

 9-         REPORTS


 Citation elements:

 Author (Surname followed by initials)

 Title of report (Italic)

 Publisher and year of publication

 Report code and number


Tuck, B. OSI and library services, British Library,1990. (Research paper 85)



 Citation elements

 Name of conference (with number in series if appropriate)

If a conference has a name it is treated as the author of its proceedings. If it has no name but it is a meeting of members of an organisation, that organisation is treated as the author of the proceedings. In other cases the proceedings are to be treated as an anonymous publication and the title is used as the main headings.

 Place where conference was held

 Date of conference

 Title of proceedings Italic


 Publisher and year of publication


Computer in Libraries International, 6th, London, February (1992) Computes in

Libraries International 92. proceeding. Meckler.

 Conference papers

Citation elements:

 Author of paper (surname followed by initials)

 Title of paper Italic

 Name of conference� etc. (as for Conference proceedings)

 Pagination for the paper

A reference to a specific paper included in the proceedings of a conference should included the full details of the paper in addition to the details of the conference.


Sizer, J. (1988) Value for money: a framework for development In Collection

development: options for effective management. Proceedings of a conference of the Library and Information Research Group, Sheffield, 1987, edited by Sheila Corrall. Taylor Graham. P.132-140.



 Citation order

Author (Surname followed by initials)

Title of thesis Italic

Degree statement

Degree awarding body



King, Andrew J. � Law and Land Use in Chicago: A Pre-history of Modern

                 Zoning.� Ph.D.diss., University of Wisconsin,1976.

 12-       INTERVIEWS


 It is not necessary to include interviews in a bibliography, but if they are listed, The entry should follow a form similar to that illustrated in the example that follow. After the name of the person interviewed, references to interviews should provide the title of the interview, if there is one, the word interviewed by followed by the interviewer�s name (if the author conducted the interview, this should read interviewed by the author); the medium, if any, in which the interviewed appeared, whether a book, journal or some other form identification of the editor, translator or director, if any; facts of publication, the repository, or such other information as may be required for location of printed and nonprinted sources.

Al-Hamad, Hamid. Alexandrian Archaeology. Interview by Barker Comstock,

Videocassete, directed by Nathan Goodhugh. Warberg Films, 1989.


References to interviews that have not been published or broadcast should include the name of the interviewee; the name of the interviewer; a description of the type of interview conducted; the place of date of the interview; and, if applicable, the depository of a transcript.



 Since personal communications are not usually available to the public, there is title point in listing them in a bibliography. If they are listed, however, personal communications should begin with the name of the letter writer or the person with whom the author has conversed:

Rich, Colonel William. Telephone conversation with author, 12 October 1989.



 The status of duplicated material is somewhat ambiguous. To the extent that it is distributed, even at no cost, it is technically published. To the extent that its distribution is limited, however, it may be said to be unpublished. In any case, in a note citation the location and type of duplication are enclosed in parentheses. In this bibliography they are set off by periods and begin with a capital letter.

 United States Educational Foundation for Egypt. �Annual Programme Proposal,

1952-53.� U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1951. Mimeographed.



 Citations to publications and documents of international bodies such as the League of Nations and the United Nations should identify the authorizing body, the topic or title of the paper, and the date. When available, the following information should also be included: the series and publication numbers, the place of publication, and a page reference when applicable. For these documents, it is advisable to retain the roman numerals in the publication numbers. The series abbreviation L.o.N.P. is standard for �League of Nations Papers.�

            United Nations [or UN]. Secretariat. Department of Economic

                 Affairs. Methods of Financing Economic Development in

                 Underdeveloped countries, 1951.II.B.2.

UN General Assembly. Ninth Session. Official Records,

                 Supplement 19. Special United Nations Fund for Economic

                 Development: Final Report Prepared by

                 Raymond  Scheyven In pursuance of UN General

                 Assembly Resolution 724B (VIII), A/2728.1954


UNESCO. The Development of Higher Education in Africa.

                 Paris, 1963. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

                 (GATT). Agreement on Implementation of Article VI

                 (Anti-dupming Code). Geneva, 1969.



 When citing manuscript materials, the element of first importance in the bibliography is usually the collection in which the specific items cited may be found, the author of the items in the collection, or the depository for the collection. Collections, authors, and depositories are therefore entered in alphabetical order. The specific items themselves are not mentioned in the bibliography unless only one item in a collection is cited, in which case the entry may begin with the item.

A manuscript-a handwritten copy-is indicated by the abbreviation MS.

Shaykh Abdul � Qadir al Jilani. Al-Fathur�r Rabbani. MS. A Collection of

Speeches of the Shaykh,Matin b. Hanif Qadir1181 A.H. Punjab University Library, Lahore.



 Sound recordings

Records, tapes, compact disks, and other forms of recorded sound are generally listed under the name of the composer, writer, or other person(s) responsible for the content. Collections or anonymous works are listed by title. The title of a record or album is italicized.

 If the fact that the recording is a sound recording is not implicit in the designation, that information may be added to the citation by such terms as �sound recording,� �compact sound disk,� �sound cassette� or �audiocassette,� and so on, since disks, cassettes, and tapes may be used to record not only sound but pictures and computer programming, including text to be printed.

In the following examples, note that the names of such musical forms as they symphony and the mass, usually not italicized, are italicized when part of the title of the recording.

 Carter, Elliott. �Eight Etudes for Woodwind Quintet.� On record 1 of The

Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. Classics Record Library SQM 80-5731.

 Video recordings

The many varieties of visual (and audiovisual) materials now available render futile any attempt at universal rule making. The nature of the material, its use to the researcher listing it, and the facts necessary to find (retrieve) it should govern the substance of any note or bibliography citation.


Perlman, Itzak, Itzak Perlman: In My Case Music. Produced and directed by Tony

DeNonno. 10min. DeNonno Pix, 1985. Videocassette.

 Slides and films

Mihalyi, Louis J. Landscapes of Zambia, Central Africa. Santa Barbara, Calif. :

Visual Education, 1975. Slide.

Works of art

Titles of works of art are underlined and the works of art are identified by their location, either in a museum or other collection or institution or in a book with reproductions.

Gainsborough, Thomas. The Morning Walk. Lahore Museum, Lahore.

Vallayer-Coster, Anne. The White Soup Bowl. Private Collection, Paris. Plate 52

in Women Artists: 1550-1950, by Ann Sutherland Harris and Linda Nochlin. New York: Knopf, 1977



Documentation of material obtained through such loose-leaf services as the federal tax services published by Commerce Clearing House (CCH) and Prentice_hall (P-H) is handled similarly to that obtained from books. For some loose-leaf services, paragraph rather than page numbers are given.

Commerce Clearing House, 1990 Standard Federal Tax Reports.  Chicago:

Commerce Clearing House, 1990

 Reference to material obtained through computer services like Dialog and Orbit and through information services like ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) and NTIS (National Technical Information Services) are treated like first references to original printed material except that the usual information is followed by the name of the service, the name of the vendor providing the service, and the accession or identifying numbers within the services.

 Kupisch, Susan J. �Stepping In�. Paper presented as part of the symposium

Disrupted and Reorganized Families at the annual meeting of the South-eastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, Ga., 23-26 March 1983. Dialog, ERIC, ED 233276.



 Programs, or Software

References to computer programs, packages, languages, systems, and the like, known collectively as software, should in general include the title, usually spelled out, except for such commonly known programs as FORTRAN, BASIC, or COBOL; such identifying detail as version, level, release number, or date; the short name or acronym, where applicable, along with other information necessary for identification, all in parentheses; and the location and name of the person, company, or organization having the property rights to the software. The author�s name may also be mentioned if it is important for identification.

 FORTRAN H-extended Version [or Ver.]2.3. IBM, White Plains, N.Y.

Houston Automatic Spooling Priority II Ver. 4.0 IBM, White Plains, N.Y.

International Mathematical Subroutine Libray Edition 8 (IMSL 8)International

Mathematical subroutine Library, Inc., Houston, Tex.

Operating System/Virtual Storage Rel. 1.7 (OS/VS 1.7) IBM, White Plains, N.Y.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Level M Ver. 8 (SPSS Lev. M 8.1).

SPSS, Chicago.

Microsoft Windows-Computer Software. Version 3.1.MacIntosh.


 Material from electronic databases:

Material received from a Computer retrieved service should be treated like other printed material of the same type.When you refer to a particular entry, give the name of the service and numbers identifying the documents.

            Books Out-of-Print Plus.New York : Bowker,1979-.CD-ROM

Laroche, Jacques.Typology of Instructional Theories.




 A Publication authorized or printed by a government entity, such as a nation, state, or city, is called a public document. Public documents take a wide variety of forms: records of meetings and proceedings, regulations, report of research, guidelines for industries, and statistics on current and future trends.

Bibliographical entries for public documents, like those for other kinds of works, consist of three parts------author, title and facts of publication------each of which may contain several elements. Each part ends with a period, followed by two spaces.

 Author entry

i-          The governing body-----such as nation, state, country, or city----in order of size and importance

ii.          The identity of the division of governments----- such as National Assembly/Congress, Senate, or Department of Province.

iii.         The name of any particular committee and subcommittee within the division.

The author entry for a document prepared by a subcommittee of the Pakistan

Senate Committee on Agriculture would read as follows:

e.g. Pakistan. Senate. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee onLoans.

Parliament documents

An entry for a hearing, a transcript of the testimony of witness before congressional committees, should include the name of the committee to which testimony was presented.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Construction and Repair Programs to Alleviate Unemployment. Hearing. 97th Cong., 2nd sess., 1 Dec. 1982. Washington: GPO, 1983.

Executive documents

The executive branch issues presidential proclamations, executive orders, and reports of executive departments and bureaus.

            Pakistan President. Proclamation. Legal Frame Work Order. October 13, 1999.



Information on citations to electronic documents (web) may be given as per following style: -

�Jericho�s Walls.� In History Log9008 [electronic bulletin board]. S.1.27 August

      1990-[cited 15 December 1990}. Available from listserv @


Kulikowski, Stan.�Readability Formula.� In NL-KR (Digest vol.s,no.10)

      [electronic bulletin  board]. Rochester, N.Y.,1988 [cited 31 January

      1989].Available from nl-kr @ ; INTERNET.




            The given list provides terms and abbreviations that occur in notes, references and bibliographical entries. Many of these terms, particularly those in Latin are no longer recommended for current use, but because they are part of tradition of scholarly research and writing, they appear frequently in literature.

            When you are deciding whether to use one of these terms or abbreviations, your first guide should be the requirements of the style you are following. Your second consideration should be brevity and clarity. If an abbreviation will save space and contribute to understanding, you should use it; if it will merely obfuscate or confuse, write out the word or expression.

 The following abbreviations are commonly used in citations or editing general scholarly text : 



 ad init  at the beginning

add.                  addendum

anon.                anonymous

app.                  appendix

arr.                   arranged,

bibl.                  bibliotheca,library.                     

bk.                    book

chap.                chapter

ca.                    circaabout approximately

col.                   column

cont.                 continued

comp.               compiler

copr.,                cop., or� copyright

ed.                    Edition, or editor

e.g.                   exemplei gratia for example

et al,                 et alii: and other, when a work has more than two authors (3 in catalogues)

fr.                     from

f.                      following

id                      the same

ibid                   in the same place

ill                      illustration, or

incl.                  Including,inclusive

f.v.                   on the back of the page

MS(pl. MSS)       manuscriptum (-a) manuscript (s)

n.,nn.                note(s), end note(s), footnote(s)

N.B                   take careful note

n.d.                   no date. Used only as a last resort: guess if possible, eg. [1981?] 


no.                    number �s

o.p.                   out of print

p.                     page, -s (do not use pp.) nb: p.75: citation is on page75; pages long pt.pts.part,  parts repr.reprinted rev.revised

s.l.                    sine loco: no place of publication given

s.n.                   sine nominee: name of  publisher not given

s.v.                   sub verbo under the word (pl.s.vv.)

ser.                   series

sup.                  above, earlier in the text

suppl.                Supplement (APA)

trans.                Translator, -ed

v.vv.                 verse,verso

vol.                   volume, -s

viz.or viz.,         namely

yr.                    year; your

 The following Latin abbreviations are used in references only.

et seq.              et sequentes:    

ibid.                  ibidem: in the same place. Used when two more citations of the same source follow immediately on one another, e.g.�

1.                   Kelly, T. A history of adult education in Great Britain 2nd ed. Library Association,

1970. p.76.

2.                   ibid., p.24.

 op.cit.               opere citato: in the work previously cited. Used when the second citations does not immediately follow the first, e.g.

            Kelly, T. op.cit., p.89

 loc. cit               loco citato: in the place previously cited used in the same way as op. cit., but with periodical articles.

pass.                 here and there: a number of scattered references in the same work.

q.v.                   quod vide: which see

s.v.                   under the word or heading                      .          

vide infra           see below (i.e. on a later page).

vide supra         see above (i.e. on an earlier page).

Punjab University Library. All rights reserved.
Tel: +92-42-99231126 | Fax +92-42-99230892|
Developed By: Mansoor Nawaz